much1 W1S1 [mʌtʃ] adv
1.) by a great amount
much better/greater/easier etc
Henry's room is much bigger than mine.
These shoes are much more comfortable.
I'm feeling very much better, thank you.
much too big/old etc
He was driving much too fast.
much the best/most interesting etc BrE
It's much the best way to do it.
a) used to ask or talk about the degree of a difference
how much older/smaller etc
She kept weighing herself to see how much heavier she was getting.
b) used to ask or talk about how big an additional amount of something is
how much more/longer/further
How much longer do we have to wait?
How much further is it?
c) used to emphasize the difference you are mentioning
how much better/nicer/easier etc
I was surprised to see how much better she was looking.
How much better life would be if we returned to the values of the past!
3.) used to talk about a strong feeling or something that is done often
how/however much
You know how much I care about you.
I think you have to accept the pain, however much it hurts.
He talks too much .
We're looking forward to your visit so much .
Thank you very much !
much loved/admired/discussed etc
The money will buy much needed books for the school.
4.) not ... much
a) only a little or hardly at all
'Did you enjoy it?' 'No, not much.'
She isn't much younger than me.
Tony hasn't changed much in the last ten years.
b) used to say that something does not often happen
We don't go to the theatre much any more.
Kids don't play outside as much as they used to.
→↑little3 (2)
5.) much like sth/much as also much the same (as sth)
used to say that something is very similar to something else
The house was very much as I'd remembered it.
The taste is much like butter.
Plants are classified in much the same way as animals.
6.) much to sb's surprise/embarrassment etc
formal used to say that someone feels very surprised, embarrassed etc when something happens
Much to my relief, the conversation turned to another topic.
7.) much less
used to say that a greater thing is even less true, likely, or possible than the thing you have just mentioned
The shelves were lined with books which neither Hugo nor Sally would ever open, much less read.
8.) much as
Much as I like Bob, I wouldn't want to live with him.
9.) not so
used to say that one description of someone or something is less suitable or correct than another
She was not so much nervous as impatient for the journey to be over.
so much the better atbetter3 (2)
much 2
much2 W1S1 determiner, pron
1.) [in informal English 'much' is used mainly in questions and negatives]
a large amount of something
I don't have much money with me.
Was there much traffic?
He didn't say much about his trip.
Do you get much chance to travel in your job?
After much consideration we have finally arrived at a decision.
much of
Much of the city was destroyed in the attack.
(far/much/rather/a little) too much
There was too much work for one person.
It would cost far too much to have the thing repaired.
It was such a small thing to have caused so much trouble.
2.) how much
used to ask or talk about the amount or cost of something
How much is that dress?
How much flour should I use in the sauce?
I know how much hard work goes into looking after a baby.
3.) as much
an amount that is equal and not less
as much (...) as
I hope you have as much fun as I did.
Just do as much as you can.
4.) as much as 10/100 etc
used to emphasize how surprisingly large an amount is
Some machines cost as much as £20,000.
5.) used in negative expressions to say that something is not important, interesting, good etc
not/nothing much
'What are you doing?' 'Oh, not much, really.'
There's nothing much we can do to help.
I don't think much of that idea (=I do not think it is good) .
The car may not be much to look at (=it does not look good) but it's very reliable.
It's the best book he's written, but that's not saying much (=none of his books are very good) .
6.) not be much of a sth
to not be a good example of something or not be very good at something
I'm not much of a dancer, I'm afraid.
It wasn't really much of a storm.
7.) be too much for sb
to be too difficult for someone to do or bear
The effort of climbing the stairs had been too much for the old man.
The shock had been too much for her - she never recovered.
8.) not be up to much
BrE spoken to be fairly bad
The restaurant's very grand but the food isn't up to much.
9.) there is not much in it informal
used to say that there is little difference between two things or amounts
'Isn't the woollen carpet more expensive?' 'A little, perhaps, but there's not much in it.'
10.) think/say etc as much
to think or say the thing that has just been mentioned
Carson strongly disapproved of the plan and said as much at the meeting.
'Max was lying all the time.' ' I thought as much.'
11.) it was as much as sb could do to do sth
used to say that someone only succeeded in doing something with great difficulty
He looked so stupid, it was as much as I could do to stop myself from laughing.
12.) not/without so much as sth
used when you are surprised or annoyed that someone did not do something
They left without so much as saying goodbye.
He'd received not so much as a thank you from Tiffany.
13.) so much for sth
used to say that a particular action, idea, statement etc was not useful or did not produce the result that was hoped for
He's late again. So much for good intentions.
14.) I'll say this/that much for sb/sth
used when saying one good thing about someone or something when they are being criticized a lot
Well, he does admit it when he's wrong, I'll say that much for him.
15.) as much again
an additional amount that is equal
The car only cost me £1500 but it cost as much again to get it insured.
16.) be a bit much/be too much
BrE spoken used to say that someone's behaviour is unacceptable or impolite
It's a bit much expecting you to pay for it all.
17.) make much of sb/sth
formal to treat a person or thing as though you think they are very important or special
The press made much of the discovery.
They've always made much of their nephews and nieces.
When much is a quantifier, it is used mainly in questions and negative sentences : Was there much mess? |I don't have much time. In sentences which are not questions or negative sentences, phrases like 'a lot of' and 'plenty of' are used instead |Kurama has a lot of snow (NOT Kurama has much snow).
Much can also be used after too , so , and as : We've wasted too much time. | She cried so much her head ached. | Drink as much wine as you want.
!! Do not use much before countable nouns. Use many or a lot of : There are too many advertisements on television (NOT There are too much advertisements on television).
When much is an adverb, it is mainly used before comparative adjectives : He looks much older than 35. | Some people are much more fortunate than others.
Much can also be used before some adjectives in questions and negative questions : She doesn't look much different with her new hairstyle.
!! Do not use much before adjectives in sentences that are not questions or negative sentences. Use very : Tea and coffee taste very different (NOT Tea and coffee taste much different).
Much can also be used before some past participles acting as adjectives : Education is a much discussed government service. | a much admired writer This use is mainly found in formal and literary English.

Dictionary of contemporary English. 2013.

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